PPS 2873 - Current Issues in Mathematics Education

Synopsis :

This course aims at exploring critically issues and trends related to four main aspects namely curriculum, teaching and learning, assessment and research in mathematics education from both local and international perspectives. It focuses on the concepts and philosophies underlying the implementation of curriculum, teaching and learning and assessment in mathematics education. Students are expected to do a lot of independent and critical reading from local and international mathematics education research journals.

Assessment methods :

1. Review of selected research articles and presentation (individual) - 30%

2. Project - analysis of secondary school mathematics textbook (group of 2/3) - 30 %

3. Final exam (comprehensive) - 40 %

# Mathematics Education/Pendidikan Matematik

A synergy of mathematics,education, psychology, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment and management.

## Saturday, February 8, 2014

## Monday, December 9, 2013

### PROBLEM POSING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND PEDAGOGY

Assumption (epistemologically) - mathematics as result of human problem posing and solving

- mathematics as a mental construction (creation, invention or

discovery)

In term of learning, social constructivism identifies all learners of mathematics as creators of mathematics involving problem posing and solving.

Therefore as a consequences of problem posing and solving pedagogy :

1. School maths for all should be centrally concerned with mathematical problem posing and solving

(reduce content- oriented mathematics curriculum)

2. Inquiry, investigation, problem posing or formulation should occupy a central place in the school

maths curriculum and precedes problem solving

3. The pedagogy (teaching, learning and assessment) should be process and inquiry(or investigation)

focused (vs product)

4. learner-centered view of investigation as a learner directed activities (new questions posed, new

situations are generated and explored- promotes active learning)

5. Increase learner autonomy and self- regulation ( develop reflective and meta-cognitive skills)

Mathematical problem posing (formulation, investigation etc) is divergent (creative thinking and higher order thinking) as the process of mathematical problem solving (critical thinking and higher order thinking - eg by using Polya method)) is convergent.

- mathematics as a mental construction (creation, invention or

discovery)

In term of learning, social constructivism identifies all learners of mathematics as creators of mathematics involving problem posing and solving.

Therefore as a consequences of problem posing and solving pedagogy :

1. School maths for all should be centrally concerned with mathematical problem posing and solving

(reduce content- oriented mathematics curriculum)

2. Inquiry, investigation, problem posing or formulation should occupy a central place in the school

maths curriculum and precedes problem solving

3. The pedagogy (teaching, learning and assessment) should be process and inquiry(or investigation)

focused (vs product)

4. learner-centered view of investigation as a learner directed activities (new questions posed, new

situations are generated and explored- promotes active learning)

5. Increase learner autonomy and self- regulation ( develop reflective and meta-cognitive skills)

Mathematical problem posing (formulation, investigation etc) is divergent (creative thinking and higher order thinking) as the process of mathematical problem solving (critical thinking and higher order thinking - eg by using Polya method)) is convergent.

## Tuesday, December 3, 2013

### PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING(PBL) IN MATHEMATICS

Paradigm shift from traditional teaching model (content-based, teacher directed and student as knowledge recipient) to problem- based learning model( problem motivated, teacher as facilitator and student as problem solver).

Main characteristic of PBL approach is that,

**the problem (real-world problem : unstructured and authentic (vs simulated) is the starting point of learning.**(discuss its implications to the current maths curriculum).

eg (solve the following problems)

1. The costs for two different kinds of heating systems for a three- bedroom home are given below

solar system - cost to install rm 29700 and operating cost/year is rm 150

electric system - cost to install rm 5000 and operating cost/year is rm 1100

After how many years will total costs for solar heating and electric heating be the same?

What will be the total costs for both systems at that time?

2. Two ordinary six-sided dice are rolled, what is the probability of getting a sum of 8?

3. Working together, Ahmad and Ali can complete a job in 4 hours. Working alone, Ahmad requires

6 hrs more than Ali to do the job. How many hrs does it take Ali to do the job if he works alone?

Benefits of PBL:

1. creating meaningful learning(content/topic/concept) through inquiry (emphasis on critical, logical creative thinking, deep reasoning and metacognition))

2. encourage the development broad -based mathematical problem solving strategies (heuristics)

rather than content learning in a limited sense.

3. development of self-directed/regulated/independent learners - students assume major responsibility

for the acquisition of knowledge.

## Sunday, December 1, 2013

### Broad- based mathematical problem solving strategies

...in USA (cont..)

NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) - focus on concept development and problem solving.

By learning and acquiring a variety of broad-based ( general ) mathematical problem-solving

strategies (heuristics) students are equip to be a better problem solvers across the topics in mathematics or transferring those skills to a variety of problems. Some of the general problem solving strategies are :

1. Characterize the problem : What is given? What is needed?What is missing? etc

2. Have you seen this before? : or different form ?

3. Look for pattern : eg Gauss recognized a pattern 1+2...+100 = ?

1+100=2+99=...101 (50 pairs)

50 @ 101 = 5050

4. Simplification/reduction : can the problem be broken up into smaller or manageable

sub-problems?

5. Work backwards : when trying to prove a theorem, it may begin from the conclusion and back track logically

6. Modeling/simulation : a mathematical model may be developed that simplify some complicated process/phenomena in the real word (representing/translating into a mathematical forms eg table, diagram, chart, graph, equation, relationship, function, inequalities, matrices, etc)

7. Logical reasoning/arguments - inductive and deductive reasoning,

8. guess and check/improve - develop a sense of estimation

9. make and test conjectures

10. formulate/pose problems from situations within and outside mathematics

NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) - focus on concept development and problem solving.

By learning and acquiring a variety of broad-based ( general ) mathematical problem-solving

strategies (heuristics) students are equip to be a better problem solvers across the topics in mathematics or transferring those skills to a variety of problems. Some of the general problem solving strategies are :

1. Characterize the problem : What is given? What is needed?What is missing? etc

2. Have you seen this before? : or different form ?

3. Look for pattern : eg Gauss recognized a pattern 1+2...+100 = ?

1+100=2+99=...101 (50 pairs)

50 @ 101 = 5050

4. Simplification/reduction : can the problem be broken up into smaller or manageable

sub-problems?

5. Work backwards : when trying to prove a theorem, it may begin from the conclusion and back track logically

6. Modeling/simulation : a mathematical model may be developed that simplify some complicated process/phenomena in the real word (representing/translating into a mathematical forms eg table, diagram, chart, graph, equation, relationship, function, inequalities, matrices, etc)

7. Logical reasoning/arguments - inductive and deductive reasoning,

8. guess and check/improve - develop a sense of estimation

9. make and test conjectures

10. formulate/pose problems from situations within and outside mathematics

## Sunday, November 24, 2013

### TEACHING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING

In USA :

1. Philosophy of mathematics education for the 21 st century :

The goal of teaching mathematics is to help all students develop

ie to produce effective problem solvers and powerful mathematical thinkers.

2. Mathematics must be seen as an integrated whole ( not as a separate and unrelated topics),

as a part of human experience, emerging from everyday experience, interaction with science

and technology and other fields.

3. Spend more time on developing broad- based mathematical problem solving skills

( general problem solving techniques ie heuristics) and less time on perfecting routine

computations.

4. Teaching mathematics as problem solving

- problem solving as a means as well as a goal of instruction

- apply problem solving skills to solve problems in new contexts with emphasis on multi-steps

and non-routine problems.

- recognize and formulate (posing) problems from real word situations/phenomena

- mathematics is problem-centered and application- based

- subject to be investigated, discovered, explored and created

5. Problem solving is seen as the most important means to develop powerful mathematical thinkers.

1. Philosophy of mathematics education for the 21 st century :

The goal of teaching mathematics is to help all students develop

**mathematical power**ie to produce effective problem solvers and powerful mathematical thinkers.

2. Mathematics must be seen as an integrated whole ( not as a separate and unrelated topics),

as a part of human experience, emerging from everyday experience, interaction with science

and technology and other fields.

3. Spend more time on developing broad- based mathematical problem solving skills

( general problem solving techniques ie heuristics) and less time on perfecting routine

computations.

4. Teaching mathematics as problem solving

- problem solving as a means as well as a goal of instruction

- apply problem solving skills to solve problems in new contexts with emphasis on multi-steps

and non-routine problems.

- recognize and formulate (posing) problems from real word situations/phenomena

- mathematics is problem-centered and application- based

- subject to be investigated, discovered, explored and created

5. Problem solving is seen as the most important means to develop powerful mathematical thinkers.

## Sunday, November 10, 2013

### TEACHING PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS (KBSM)

Behaviorist approach :

1. drill -practice (practice makes perfect)

2. mastery of skills (lower order thinking skills- knowledge, comprehension and application)

3. performance- based (how to do) - suitable for routine/familiar problems

4. focus on algorithm (procedures/steps of calculation)

5. mistakes and errors should be avoided/minimized

6. teacher- centered (focus on teaching)

Cognitive approach :

1. construction of meaning (searching for meaning)

2. conceptual understanding (higher order thinking skills - analysis, synthesis and evaluation)

3. thinking- based (emphasis on why) - suitable for non- routine/ unfamiliar problems

4. focus on heuristic (general methods of solving problems) - Polya's Model

5. mistakes and errors is good indicators of misconceptions and difficulties

6. student- centered (focus on learning)

How to teach problem solving in mathematics classroom?

As an example in KBSM :

Teaching problem solving skills as an independent topic (eg in

(Additional Maths KBSM form 4) - try and error/improve, guess and check, drawing diagrams, construct a table/chart, simplify the problem, using simulation/experiment, identifying patterns, working backwards, develop mathematical models, - skills that can be used in solving mathematical problems in any topics/across the topics.

1. drill -practice (practice makes perfect)

2. mastery of skills (lower order thinking skills- knowledge, comprehension and application)

3. performance- based (how to do) - suitable for routine/familiar problems

4. focus on algorithm (procedures/steps of calculation)

5. mistakes and errors should be avoided/minimized

6. teacher- centered (focus on teaching)

Cognitive approach :

1. construction of meaning (searching for meaning)

2. conceptual understanding (higher order thinking skills - analysis, synthesis and evaluation)

3. thinking- based (emphasis on why) - suitable for non- routine/ unfamiliar problems

4. focus on heuristic (general methods of solving problems) - Polya's Model

5. mistakes and errors is good indicators of misconceptions and difficulties

6. student- centered (focus on learning)

How to teach problem solving in mathematics classroom?

As an example in KBSM :

Teaching problem solving skills as an independent topic (eg in

(Additional Maths KBSM form 4) - try and error/improve, guess and check, drawing diagrams, construct a table/chart, simplify the problem, using simulation/experiment, identifying patterns, working backwards, develop mathematical models, - skills that can be used in solving mathematical problems in any topics/across the topics.

## Monday, October 28, 2013

### NATURE OF MATHEMATICS ANT ITS RELATION TO PROBLEM SOLVING

Nature of mathematics :

A problem solving view of mathematics as a dynamic (vs fixed or static - accumulation of facts, concepts, rules, theorems etc)) and continually expanding field of human creation, involving the process of inquiry, reasoning (with its intellectual rigour and beauty), discovery and invention as well as a cultural product (is not cultural free !). Mathematics is useful, practical and problem- driven knowledge (ie mainly arise from practical or real- life situations).

Assignment 2 :

Discuss in what ways do this view of the nature of mathematics influence teaching and learning mathematics ?

A problem solving view of mathematics as a dynamic (vs fixed or static - accumulation of facts, concepts, rules, theorems etc)) and continually expanding field of human creation, involving the process of inquiry, reasoning (with its intellectual rigour and beauty), discovery and invention as well as a cultural product (is not cultural free !). Mathematics is useful, practical and problem- driven knowledge (ie mainly arise from practical or real- life situations).

Assignment 2 :

Discuss in what ways do this view of the nature of mathematics influence teaching and learning mathematics ?

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