Saturday, March 19, 2011



1. Proposed by Kurt Lewin ( 1946) in USA and was further developed by Kolb (1984) and Carr and Kemmis (1986).

2. Usually used to study educational problems related to the T&L activities in the classroom (naturalistic) and subsequently correct them so as to improve the T&L practices (improvement).

3. It can be conducted on an individual or collaborative basis by means of systematic self-reflection- develop a concept of teacher as a researcher in the classroom (practitioner research).

How to conduct it ?

1. The process of AR can be visualized as a spiral of cycles of action that comprises 4 main steps ie Plan, Act, Observe and Reflect. (PAOR)

2. Plan- problem identification/statement (ie reflection of previous practices), determine the specific focus and objectives of the research; eg How to improve problem solving skills involving word problems by using Polya Method among form 4 (social science) students ?

Act-implement the research plan (taking actions/intervention);

Observe - using suitable method and technique collecting data/fact finding about the results
of the action/evidences;

Reflect- analyze the data and interpret the results/ research findings- evaluate the actions
(prepare report and decide follow up action).

4. The results of the first cycle may lead to the identification of a new problem, and thus stimulates the second cycle of AR.

5. Teacher/researcher/reflective practitioner work as an active participant(involvement) with the subject/students, not as an outside expert work on the students.

Characteristics of AR:

1. Focus on one issue/case/problem only (educational/T&L problem-specific/small scale -qualitative study) at a time (one cycle).eg effectiveness of T&L materials, methods, techniques, group work, remedial or enrichment materials/activities etc)

2. Focus on problem solving rather than testing the hypothesis/theory or making generalizations (as in conventional research).

3. Focus on narrowing the gap between theory and practice.

4. Using systematic self reflection/reflective thinking skills/inquiry in every step of the research.

Based on one problem of learning mathematics faced by the students in your classroom , discuss how you can use action research to solve the problem and subsequently improve your teaching practice.

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