throughout the world such as :

1. Competency-based curriculum (focus on performance/competency or skills - mathematical skills

and competency)

and competency)

2. Standards-based curriculum (focus on pre-determined criterias/standards eg KSSR and KSSM,

NCTM)

NCTM)

3. Outcome-based curriculum (OBE) (focus on outcomes - outcomes drive teaching and learning)

4. Problem - based curriculum (focus on solving real life problems - problems drive teaching and

learning eg problem-based learning (PBL))

learning eg problem-based learning (PBL))

5. Content (Subject/discipline) - based curriculum (focus on content and mathematical structures

- epistemological issues eg how knowledge begins, grows, its potentials and limitations )

- epistemological issues eg how knowledge begins, grows, its potentials and limitations )

6. Humanistic curriculum (focus on developing human potential in a broader sense- self-growth,

talents or potentials, generic skills eg leadership, communication, team- work, creativity etc)

talents or potentials, generic skills eg leadership, communication, team- work, creativity etc)

7. Thinking curriculum (focus on developing thinking skills - the process of mathematical thinking,

HOTs/KBAT, problem posing, creativity, advanced mathematical thinking etc)

HOTs/KBAT, problem posing, creativity, advanced mathematical thinking etc)

8. Integrated curriculum (focus on integration, holistic, unified or thematic approach

- integrated mathematics (vs compartmentalized) eg KBSM

- integrated mathematics (vs compartmentalized) eg KBSM

Different models/orientations(specific or mixed) based on certain philosophy/ideology/theory/belief system will have different influences on the aims, objectives, selection and organization of contents, skills and values/attitudes (KSA), as well as on teaching, learning and assessment methods.