Monday, March 14, 2011



1. OBE is a student-centered learning philosophy introduced by William Spady (1994) - the father of OBE. It is an educational movement accepted worldwide especially in developed countries such as UK, USA, Australia, etc. A change from inputs (time, materials, textbook,
computer, teaching etc) to outcomes (what we expect students to know and be able to do?).

2. Basic premise - all students can learn and succeed although some may take a little longer than the others.

3. OBE 4 main principles : clarity of focus on outcomes; design backward; high expectations for success; expanded learning opportunities for success.

How to implement ? :

1. Focus on outcomes - cognitive, affective and psychomotor (National Education Philosophy/NEP, vision, mission, Program educational objectives/PEO- few years (4-5 years after graduation), program learning outcomes/PLO (upon graduation), course/subject learning outcomes/CLO (upon subject completion - what do I want my students to be able to do as a result of my teaching in this subject ), not on processes (what TL approaches or activities do I adopt to achieve the intended LO- active learning, cooperative learning, problem- based learning, inquiry-discovery etc) or inputs (resources available to the students).

2. Design backward - outcomes as a starting point (ie from NEP...CLO) , deliver forward (from or in the classroom/ labs etc ,ie teaching and learning activities are directed towards the achievement of the desired outcomes). OBE does not specify or require any particular approach/methods of teaching and learning. It is flexible. Students should be given more opportunities or chances to achieve the LOs. Outcomes drive the learning. Time is not the main factor or obstacle.

3. Outcome - based assessment and evaluation ( tests, projects, general exam, tracers study, alumni, stakeholders feedback, etc). Standards of performance should be raised and made achievable.

The whole process of OBE does not end only with assessment, continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a must.

OBE principles should be implemented consistently, systematically, creatively and simultaneously through out the school curriculum.

Discuss critically the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the OBE principles in mathematics curriculum.

Assignment : Based on a particular curriculum (eg form 4 KBSM textbook), draw a curriculum mapping ie topics vs objectives according to OBE principles and explain clearly with suitable examples on how to achieve the objectives of that curriculum.

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