Based on the observations, an inference/good guess/tentative explanation of a given situation is made which may not be true. A hypothesis which identify the relationship between variables is formulated and then tested through a carefully planned and controlled experiment.
By collecting, analyzing and interpreting data, then the conclusion is made whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.
Scientists should adopt scientific attitudes and noble values in all their research and investigations. Observations should be done objectively,carefully and patiently. Scientists have to be rational, critical and analytical when collecting, analyzing, interpreting data and making conclusions of the research. Each of those values not only increases the validity of the research or investigations, but will also enhance one's scientific thinking and abilities to solve problems in science as well as in other fields.